Indiscipline: The school climate of Brazilian schools and the impact on student performance
The article aims to assess the impact of the school climate on the academic performance of Brazilian students through the 2018 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). The methodology used was the pro-pensity score matching (PSM), Nearest neighborhood, Kernel, Radius, Inverse Probability-Weighted Regression-Adjustment (IPWRA), and the dose-response function (DRF). The results showed that a negative school climate is detrimental to students' school performance and the intensity of the climate affects grades in different ways. The peer effects on students' grades are significant, indicating that classmates matter for the perception of climate in addition to impacting the grade of others. Furthermore, the disciplinary climate in reading classes is one of the strongest predictors of academic performance and it is extremely important to understand the relationship between them.