New intergenerational evidence on reverse socialization of environmental literacy
A large body of studies examine the role of parents in shaping children's environmental literacy and affinity towards sustainable development. Yet, the intergenerational influence that adolescents can have on adults in return is much less well understood. Utilizing a household reverse socialization framework, this study investigates how different types of parent-child interaction may be channels for intergenerational transmission of pro-environmental content from children to their parents. The empirical analysis leverages representative child-parent matched samples from South Korea and Macau SAR, in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 dataset, and estimates structural equation models to discern how parent-child interaction mediates reverse socialization of environmental literacy within the household. Most strikingly, findings indicate that parent-child interaction is an important channel through which children's pro-environmental knowledge, attitude, and behavior positively affect that of adults. In addition, results reveal that the majority of child-to-parent transmission occurs through household educational interactions, implying that young generations are effective agents for positive change at home, and that there are less visible yet critical household reverse socialization spillover effects of pro-environmental education programs.