A primer on continuous-time modeling in educational research
An exemplary application of a continuous-time latent curve model with structured residuals (CT-LCM-SR) to PISA Data
One major challenge of longitudinal data analysis is to find an appropriate statistical model that corresponds to the theory of change and the research questions at hand. In the present article, we argue that continuous-time models are well suited to study the continuously developing constructs of primary interest in the education sciences and outline key advantages of using this type of model. Furthermore, we propose the continuous-time latent curve model with structured residuals (CT-LCM-SR) as a suitable model for many research questions in the education sciences. The CT-LCM-SR combines growth and dynamic modeling and thus provides descriptions of both trends and process dynamics. We illustrate the application of the CT-LCM-SR with data from PISA reading literacy assessment of 2000 to 2018 and provide a tutorial and annotated code for setting up the CT-LCM-SR model.