Based on the data of PISA 2018, a cycle with reading as the major assessment domain, this new report addresses how 15-year-old students are developing reading skills to navigate the technology-rich 21st century. It shows, for example, that students who reported reading books more often in paper than digital format perform better in reading and spend more time reading for enjoyment in all participating countries/economies. On a more general level, it reveals that students’ access to digital technologies and training on how to use them greatly vary between countries and students’ socio-economic profiles. Finally, the report discusses implications for education policy and practice. It outlines possible ways to strengthen students' ability to navigate the new information world and highlights how countries must redouble their efforts to combat the new digital divides. It also explores what teachers can do to help students navigate ambiguity and manage complexity.
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