Measurement invariance of information, communication and technology (ICT) engagement and its relationship with student academic literacy
Evidence from PISA 2018
The present study aimed to examine the measurement invariance of the information, communication and technology (ICT) engagement questionnaire in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) across countries, and further to explore the effects of ICT engagement on student literacy. The sample included 98,758 15-year-old students from 16 countries in PISA 2018. The multi-group confirmatory factor analyses results indicated that the ICT engagement questionnaire was invariant at the residual level so that meaningful cross-country comparisons can be made at the observed level. Furthermore, the multi-level model results indicated that perceived ICT autonomy was a positive predictor, while use of social media was a negative predictor of student literacy across the countries. However, the relations of interest in ICT and perceived ICT competence to student literacy were inconsistent, with some countries showing positive and linear relationships, while others negative and linear relationships.