ICCS 2022 Fact Sheet

Long title
International Civic and Citizenship Education Study
Frequency of data collection
Every 5 years

(Note: Frequency of data collection will change from seven and six years, respectively, to five years with the upcoming ICCS 2027 cycle.)

Previous cycles
2009, 2016
  • Investigate the ways in which young people are prepared to undertake their role as adult citizens in a range of countries (and regions) in the third decade of the 21st century.
  • Explore content and themes associated with global citizenship, sustainable development, migration, changes to traditional political systems, and the use of digital technologies for civic engagement.
  • Addressing both enduring and emerging challenges of educating young people in a world where contexts of democracy and civic participation continue to change.
  • Help countries gather information to assist with the implementation of their national policies in the area of civic and citizenship education while also monitoring progress toward the UNESCO’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  • The study includes region-specific questionnaire material to address aspects related to civic and citizenship education of specific relevance in the European and the Latin American regions.
Research questions
  • How is civic and citizenship education implemented in participating countries?
  • What is the extent and variation of students’ civic knowledge within and across participating countries?
  • What is the extent of students’ engagement in different spheres of society and which factors within or across countries are related to it?
  • What beliefs do students in participating countries hold regarding important civic issues in modern society and what are the factors influencing their variation?
  • How is schooling in participating countries organized regarding civic and citizenship education and what is its association with students’ learning outcomes?
Assessment domain(s)
  • Civic education (i.e., civic knowledge, attitudes, and engagement)
Study framework (summary)

Civic knowledge framework

  • Four content domains
    • Civic institutions and systems
    • Civic principles
    • Civic participation
    • Civic roles and identities
  • Two cognitive domains
    • Knowing
    • Reasoning and applying


Civic attitudes and engagement framework

Two affective-behavioral domains

  • Attitudes
  • Engagement


Contextual or background framework

Four context levels

  • Context of the wider community
  • Context of school and classrooms
  • Context of home and peer environment
  • Context of the individual

Two types of variables

  • Antecedents
  • Processes
Participating entities


24 education systems (22 countries and 2 benchmarking entities) participated in ICCS 2022, with 11 of the countries participating in all three cycles (2009, 2016, and 2022).


Bulgaria, Brazil, Chinese Taipei, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany (i.e., North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein as benchmarking entities), Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden




20 European education systems (18 countries and two benchmarking participants)


Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany (i.e., North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein as benchmarking entities), Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden




Two countries


Brazil, Colombia

Target population and sample (summary)

Target population

  • Students enrolled in the eighth grade, provided that the average age of students in this grade was 13.5 years or above at the time of the assessment; in countries where the average age of students in Grade 8 was less than 13.5 years, Grade 9 was defined as the target population.
  • Teachers teaching regular classes at the target grade level


Sample (students)


Approximately 80,000 students and 50,000 teachers from about 3500 schools in 22 countries and two benchmarking participants.



Approximately 65,000 students and 40,000 teachers from 18 European countries and two benchmarking participants.



Approximately 10,000 students in two Latin American countries.



Countries transitioning from the paper-based assessment in the previous cycle to the computer-based assessment for the student survey were required to assess an additional sample of at least 1,500 tested students for the bridge data collection. (Note: Data from the bridge sample were not used for international reporting.)

Data collection techniques and instruments (summary)

International student test

  • Measuring students’ civic knowledge and understanding
  • Administered as paper-based assessment (PBA) or computer-based assessment (CBA)



  • International student questionnaire (PBA or CBA)
  • Regional student questionnaire (PBA or CBA)
  • Teacher questionnaire (paper or online)
  • School questionnaire (paper or online)
  • National context survey (online)
Study director(s)
Study website(s)


Keizersgracht 311

1016 EE Amsterdam

The Netherlands

Tel.: +31 20 625 3625

Fax: +31 20 420 7136

E-mail: secretariat@iea.nl

URL:  https://www.iea.nl/


ICCS 2022 International Study Center

ICCS International Study Center at the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER)

19 Prospect Hill Rd

Camberwell VIC 3124


Phone: +61 3 9277 5555

Fax: +61 3 9277 5500

E-mail: iccs@acer.org