PISA 2022 Framework

Assessment or survey framework

Mathematics framework

An updated mathematics framework was developed for PISA 2022. Among others, this updated framework preserves the mathematical modelling cycle from the PISA 2003 and PISA 2012 frameworks, and it reflects the change in delivery mode introduced in 2015 (from print to online version).

Definition: Mathematical literacy is an individual’s capacity to reason mathematically and to formulate, employ, and interpret mathematics to solve problems in a variety of real world contexts. It includes concepts, procedures, facts and tools to describe, explain and predict phenomena. It assists individuals to know the role that mathematics plays in the world and to make the well-founded judgments and decisions needed by constructive, engaged and reflective 21st century citizens.

Organization of the domain along three dimensions:

  • Mathematical reasoning and problem-solving processes
    • Mathematical reasoning (both deductive and inductive) 
      • Involves 
        • Evaluating situations
        • Selecting strategies
        • Drawing logical conclusions
        • Developing and describing solutions, and
        • Recognizing how those solutions can be applied
      • Students reason mathematically when they
        • Identify, recognize, organize, connect, and represent
        • Construct, abstract, evaluate, deduce, justify, explain, and defend
        • Interpret, make judgements, critique, refute, and qualify
      • Key understandings (undergirding school mathematics) that enable mathematical reasoning
        • Understanding quantity, number systems and their algebraic properties
        • Appreciating the power of abstraction and symbolic representation
        • Seeing mathematical structures and their regularities
        • Recognizing functional relationships between quantities
        • Using mathematical modelling as a lens onto the real world (e.g., those arising in the physical, biological, social, economic, and behavioral sciences)
        • Understanding variation as the heart of statistics
    • Problem solving 
      • Formulating situations mathematically
      • Employing mathematical concepts, facts, procedures, and reasoning
      • Interpreting, applying, and evaluating mathematical outcomes
  • The mathematical content 
    • Targeted for use in the assessment items
      • Change and relationships
      • Space and shape
      • Quantity
      • Uncertainty and data
    • In addition, the following four topics identified for special emphasis in the PISA 2022 assessment
      • Growth phenomena (change and relationships)
      • Geometric approximation (space and shape)
      • Computer simulations (quantity)
      • Conditional decision making (uncertainty and data)
  • Contexts for the assessment items and selected 21st century skills
    • Contexts
      • Personal
      • Occupational
      • Societal
      • Scientific
    • Selected 21st century skills
      • Critical thinking
      • Creativity
      • Research and inquiry
      • Self-direction, initiative, and persistence
      • Information use
      • Systems thinking
      • Communication
      • Reflection


Reading framework

Definition: Reading literacy is understanding, using, evaluating, reflecting on, and engaging with texts in order to achieve one’s goals, develop one’s knowledge and potential, and participate in society.

Organization of the domain along three dimensions:

  • Reading processes
    • Text processing
    • Reading fluently
      • The ease and efficiency of reading simple texts for understanding
    • Locating information
      • Accessing and retrieving information within a piece of text
      • Searching for and selecting relevant text
    • Understanding text
      • Acquiring a representation of the literal meaning of text
      • Constructing an integrated representation of text
    • Evaluating and reflecting on text
      • Assessing its quality and credibility
      • Reflecting on content and form
      • Detecting and handling conflict
    • Metacognitive task management processes
      • Setting goals and plans
      • Monitoring
      • Regulating
  • Text 
    • Source: single, multiple
    • Organizational and navigational structure: static, dynamic
    • Format: continuous texts (organized in sentences and paragraphs); non-continuous texts (e.g., lists, forms, graphs or diagrams), mixed texts
    • Type: description, narration, exposition, argumentation, instruction, interaction, transaction
  • Situations
    • Refers to both the context of use and the supposed audience and purpose of the text
    • Includes: Personal; Public; Occupational and; Educational


Science framework

Definition: Scientific literacy is the ability to engage with science-related issues and the ideas of science as a reflective citizen.

Organization of the domain along three dimensions:

  • Contexts: Personal, local/national, and global issues, both current and historical, that demand some understanding of science and technology
  • Knowledge: Understanding of the major facts, concepts and explanatory theories that form the basis of scientific knowledge, including
    • Content knowledge
    • Procedural knowledge
    • Epistemic knowledge
  • Competencies
    • Explaining phenomena scientifically
    • Evaluating and designing scientific enquiry
    • Interpreting data and evidence scientifically


Creative thinking framework

Definition: Creative thinking is defined as the competence to engage productively in the generation, evaluation and improvement of ideas, that can result in original and effective solutions, advances in knowledge and impactful expressions of imagination.

Organization of the domain along two dimensions:

  • Processes
    • Generate different ideas: this focuses on students’ capacities to think flexibly across domains
    • Generate creative ideas: this focuses on students’ capacities to search for appropriate and original ideas across different domains
    • Evaluate and improve ideas: this focuses on students’ capacities to evaluate limitations in given ideas and find original ways to improve them
  • Domains
    • Written expression
      • Engage in open and imaginative writing
      • Generate ideas for various written formats by considering different stimuli
      • Make an original improvement to someone else’s written work
    • Visual expression: test units in the domain ask students to: 
      • Engage in open visual design tasks, using a digital drawing tool
      • Generate visual design ideas based on the scenario and stimuli provided in the unit
      • Suggest or make original improvements to different forms of visual expression, following given instructions or additional information.
    • Scientific problem solving
      • Engage in open problem-solving tasks in a scientific context
      • Generate ideas for hypotheses or solutions to problems of a scientific nature, based on the given scenario
      • Suggest original improvements to experiments or problem solutions
    • Social problem solving
      • Engage in open problem-solving tasks with a social focus, either individually or in simulated collaborative scenarios
      • Generate ideas for solutions to social problems, based on a given scenario
      • Suggest original improvements to problem solutions


Financial literacy framework

Definition: Financial literacy is the knowledge and understanding of financial concepts and risks, and the skills, motivation and confidence to apply such knowledge and understanding in order to make effective decisions across a range of financial contexts, to improve the financial well-being of individuals and society, and to enable participation in economic life.

Organization of the domain along three dimensions:

  • Content – the essential areas of knowledge and understanding
    • Money and transactions
    • Planning and managing finances
    • Risk and reward
    • Financial landscape
  • Processes – the mental strategies or approaches that are called upon to negotiate financial material
    • Identifying financial information
    • Analyzing information in a financial context
    • Evaluating financial issues
    • Applying financial knowledge and understanding
    • Understanding
  • Contexts – the situations in which financial knowledge, skills, and understanding are applied
    • Education and work
    • Home and family
    • Individual
    • Societal
Contextual or background framework

Student background constructs

  • Out-of-school mathematics experiences
  • Creative activities out-of-school
  • Student SES, family and home background
  • Migration and culture
  • Educational pathways in early childhood


Schooling constructs

  • Teaching and learning
    • Teacher qualifications and professional development
    • Teaching practices for mathematics
    • Learning time and curriculum
    • Frequency of creative activities at school
  • School policies
    • School-level learning environment for mathematics
    • Parental involvement
    • School climate: interpersonal relationships, trust, and expectations
    • School context and resources
    • Teachers’ beliefs about creativity
  • Governance
    • Assessment, evaluation, and accountability
    • Allocation, selection, and choice


Non-cognitive/metacognitive constructs

  • Mathematics-related outcomes; attitudes, motivation, and strategies
  • Dispositional and school-focused variables
  • Socio-emotional skills
  • Curiosity and openness to experience
  • Creative self-efficacy
  • Students’ beliefs about creativity